GSM Overview

Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.

Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems.

From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen.

GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS), the base station system (BSS), and the operation and support system (OSS).

GSM Architecture:

 

 

 

 

 

 

GSM Network Architecture

 

 

 

 

 

The Switching System:

The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units.

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home location register (HLR) —The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber’s service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.
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mobile services switching center (MSC) —The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others.
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visitor location register (VLR) —The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time.
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authentication center (AUC) —A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user’s identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today’s cellular world.
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equipment identity register (EIR) —The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node.

The Base Station System (BSS):

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

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BSC —The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.
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BTS —The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.

The Operation and Support System:

The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.

Additional Functional Elements:

Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows:

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message center (MXE) —The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax, and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e-mail, and notification.
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mobile service node (MSN) —The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services.
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gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC) —A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.
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GSM interworking unit (GIWU) —The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR.

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Telecom Siteroot

Topics

* Forum
* Telecom
* GSM
o GSM History
o Specifications
o Equipment
* CDMA
* SS7
* 3G
* Messaging
* DataTech
* Packet Data
* Wireless Networks
* Emerging Tech
* Links

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Universal broadband for Europe?

How long before European regulators require CSPs to provide universal access to broadband? And how will these programs be funded?

On January 29th, Britain’s regulator Ofcom published the Digital Britain Interim Report. Action17 states:

We will develop plans for a digital Universal Service Commitment to be effective by 2012, delivered by a mixture of fixed and mobile, wired and wireless means. Subject to further study of the costs and benefits, we will set out our plans for the level of service which we believe should be universal. We anticipate this consideration will include options up to 2Mb/s.

While aggressive, Britain’s plan is not unique. Many European regulators are saying and doing much the same thing.

Sure, they will benefit end users and help stimulate domestic economies, but how will these universal service obligations affect CSPs?

Funding: the critical issue

Governments cannot pay subsidies directly to individual CSPs – doing so would breach EU state-aid rules designed to protect competition. The rules state that infrastructure investment or loans have to be made available to all CSPs, and not just targeted at individual players in the market.

To accommodate these rules, the German government is considering a subsidy to local governments that would in turn invest in new ducts for laying fiber-optic cables. Access to the ducts would be open to all CSPs on equal terms.

Alternatively, government may push funding straight to the industry as a whole, in the form of underwriting bonds issued by CSPs to fund the rollout of next-generation networks. The guarantee of government support, given equally to all CSPs, would reassure investors who are nervous about funding projects in the current climate.

France, like Britain, has pledged to give all households access to broadband by 2012. The country’s government plans to issue a tender early this year for CSPs interested in running its broadband universal service. The Spanish government also made a proposal on universal access at the end of last year, although it did not explicitly mention providing a stimulus to the wider economy as a reason for the move.

Governments are, however, dependent on bidders coming forward to run their broadband
universal services, a possible weakness. They have no power to compel CSPs to cooperate in providing universal service because broadband does not fall under the universal service obligation (USO) in European telecoms laws. In their current review of EU telecoms legislation, national regulators have not proposed adding broadband to the USO, although the process has not been finalized.

Individual governments can still include broadband as a universal service obligation, but
have no powers of enforcement under EU law.

With funding and enforcement such big hurdles, do you think the EU will ever agree to a workable universal service program for its citizens?

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3G sweeps across Latin America

Latin American subscribers are taking up mobile broadband with enthusiasm. Just ask executives at América Móvil, the region’s leading communications service provider (CSP), which has successfully launched 3G services in 15 Latin American markets since last year.

“There has been an explosion in the use of mobile internet access. Mobility plus data is what customers want and we are seeing very good results with 3G,” says Marco Quatorze, Director of Value Added Services for América Móvil. “Fixed broadband penetration is limited in Latin America. 3G brings a new way to access internet services. With the mobile we are offering many people their first experience of personal internet access, which is really important because the internet is a necessity in the 21st century, not a luxury.”

Quatorze also reports that the sheer convenience of mobile broadband is appealing to customers. “It is so easy to install a PC dongle. Customers simply plug it in, avoiding the inconvenience of a technician visiting their house to install fixed access. This convenience means that people will pay the 20% higher tariffs for mobile broadband compared to fixed broadband.”

PC dongles open new revenue streams

“In a few years we will be the most important internet service provider in Latin America. A powerful advantage over pure ISPs is our strong billing and customer care relationship with our customers. One company that could previously bill only by credit card, was able to multiply its sales tenfold by partnering with us and using our billing capabilities.”

América Móvil also plans to offer its own value added services for PCs, such as anti-virus and IPTV, as well as the existing ringtone and music download services for handsets.

“With 3G, the customer experience is much better and we are seeing a rise in usage,” Quatorze says.

Yet one of the key challenges is building an understanding among subscribers of how to get the most from mobile broadband over handsets. “We need to reach the mass market. For example we changed all our marketing material to refer to ‘internet on your phone’, because people didn’t understand the previous description of ‘data services’. To get the message out, we will use a combination of TV advertising, local channels, media relations and more – showing people the value of mobile internet is our priority for the next 12 months.”

The right time to deploy 3G

“There are several reason why the time is ripe to deploy mobile broadband in Latin America. Revenues here are lower than in the mature markets of Europe, Japan and North America. So we need to work with proven but advanced technologies and HSDPA fits this need well. We cannot test technologies in this region. Secondly, Latin America has some of the world’s biggest cities, demanding huge capacity. 3G is a more efficient way to increase capacity than GSM.

“We also invest in data services to help offset declining voice margins. Furthermore, we have been able to use the old TDMA frequencies, which have been freed up by the deployment of GSM. This means we can run 3G over the 850 MHz band which gives us much better coverage than the 2100 MHz used in Europe.”

Local support is vital

“Nokia Siemens Networks is one of our key 3G suppliers in almost all the countries in which we operate. We have enjoyed a long and successful business relationship with the company. Unlike other vendors, Nokia Siemens Networks has established a strong local presence in Latin America with engineering teams in all the regions. This closeness is really important to us and gives us very good confidence in the company,” says Quatorze.

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Access to broadband just a start: report

New statistics reveal challenges, opportunities for broadband providers across the world.

You may have noticed. Every day it gets a little bit easier to access broadband – on busses and trains, on laptops and mobile phones.

A comprehensive study commissioned by Nokia Siemens Networks goes further to examine this trend towards universal access to broadband in great detail – studying both developed and emerging economies.

The study started with nearly ten thousand interviews, which were conducted in July and August, 2008, in five developed countries – France, Italy, Germany, the UK and US – and six emerging countries – Brazil, Morocco, India, Croatia, Romania and Russia.

Numbers reveal huge potential for growth

In developed countries, more than half of the population uses the internet, with the USA leading at 71%. Meanwhile, emerging markets show a huge untapped potential for growth. While penetration has exceeded the 30% mark in leading countries like Croatia (35.3%) and Romania (31.4%), penetration is still is quite low in countries like Brazil (22.4%), Russia (20.8%) and Morocco (18.1%).

High-speed home access (DSL, ADSL, VDSL or Cable) is the dominant access method in both developed (77%) and emerging countries (36%). In public places, users in developed countries still prefer WLAN (15% of users) over mobile access (6%). However, when travelling or commuting, the number of mobile network users is catching up on those who use WLAN (9% versus 12%).

Taking it to the street using a laptop or a mobile phone

People most often access the internet at home or in the office, and as you may expect the personal computer is still the device of choice in these places – 79% of users in developed and 59% in emerging countries favor it. But laptops are also gaining popularity: 49% of users in the developed markets use them at home, while16% use them in public places and 14% when travelling or commuting.

Interestingly, internet access via mobile phone is nearly nonexistent in those emerging economies studied. However, in developed countries, mobile devices are used in public places or while travelling and commuting by 8% and 9% respectively of those interviewed. 13% of respondents even used it at home.

In many emerging countries, connectivity from internet cafes via a PC provides an important channel for access; on average it is employed by 26% of all internet users. For India, the figure is as high as 38%; for Morocco 33%; and for Brazil 29%.

Browsing and e-mail lead in usage, high-bandwidth services growing

The internet is used primarily for browsing and e-mail traffic, by 93% and 95% of subscribers respectively in the developed countries. In the emerging countries, 85% of the users have adopted either service.

However, high-bandwidth services are clearly on the rise, putting more strain on network capacity. 8% more users in developed and 14% more in emerging countries are looking to start downloading videos on either daily or weekly basis, while 8% more in developed and 14% more in emerging markets expect to start watching TV streaming at least once a week. Other services on the rise include downloading and uploading music/photos, and IP telephony.

High satisfaction for fixed, lower for mobile

The satisfaction in the fixed internet connection is high in both developed and developing countries. The time needed to open web site and the stability of the connection were the key criteria mentioned, with users in emerging countries putting an even stronger emphasis on web page access time.

On a scale from 1 (very satisfied) to 5 (very dissatisfied), users gave relatively high ratings of 1.86 in developed markets and – even higher – 1.72 in emerging markets for their service.

In the developed markets, speeds higher than 4 MBit/s were greeted with ‘satisfied’ or ‘very satisfied’ ratings. In emerging markets, speeds up from 64 kbit/s received similar marks. This goes to show that existing fixed technologies (DSL, ADSL, VDSL or Cable) are still sufficient to fulfill the needs of today and the near to mid-term future.

The subscribers are, however, much less satisfied with their mobile connections. In the developed markets, usage via mobile phone received lower ratings than with fixed for all key services – the gap was the widest for browsing at 17% and narrowest for video downloading at 11%.

Bandwidth needs are increasing

In the near future, 44% of the online users in developed countries and 54% in emerging countries are “very likely” to increase their existing fixed bandwidth by technical upgrades at home – a hugely important consideration for CSPs making both short- and long-term plans for the future.

Converged bundling of services generates interest

On average, users in developed countries spend 105€ per month on communications and entertainment; whereas this figure for emerging countries averages 41€ per month.

Of the users in developed countries, 52% have a double-play contract including internet and fixed-line telephony, while 29% had a triple- or quadruple-play contract including fixed phone, mobile, internet and/or IPTV in various combinations. 87% of the users have a flat rate internet tariff.

In emerging countries, the fixed telephone and internet package is used by 36% of consumers, whereas 30% of the users have a triple or quadruple play bundle. Flat rate internet access has been adopted by 67% of the users.

Nokia Siemens Networks shares full results of this survey with its customers in order to determine the best broadband strategies moving forward. Does your company have the information it needs to help you make the most informed decisions about the future of broadband?

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Embracing the internet

Increasing demand for mobile broadband will require operators to adapt sooner rather than later.

Today, more and more end-users want to share content wherever, and whenever, they choose. Mobile broadband is helping to meet this ever-increasing demand. Whether it’s video footage or still imagery, audio or textual, mobile broadband enables the internet everywhere.

After many years of unfulfilled expectations and failed predictions, the mobile internet is now part of the mass market, in a big way. Driven by internet browsing and e-mail, yes, but end-users now expect a lot more than that.

Preparing for the inevitable

Worldwide operator experience and Nokia Siemens Networks’ tracking of 3G usage clearly show that internet browsing is the most popular application, with a huge variety of application and content types used, and clear growth can be tracked in the use of bandwidth demanding photo and video related applications.

Is your network ready for this explosive growth in demand for mobile broadband?

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Social networking on the move

Online user-centric networks are quickly giving ground to mobile versions

In May, the Vodafone Group paid upwards of 30 million euros for Zyb, a mobile social networking service that offers its subscribers contacts management and networking benefits.

Currently, Zyb has close to 20 million subscribers across the world. Zyb’s technology allows mobile phone users to share calendars and instant messages with friends online, as well as enabling them to back up their contacts to a web portal.

Though 20 million subscribers sounds like a lot, it’s a drop in the bucket compared to the 3.3 billion mobile phone subscribers there around the world – more than twice the number of internet users.

And there appears to be ever-increasing demand for mobile user-centric services.

Informa Telecoms said in a report last month that about 50 million people, or about 2.3 % of the global population of mobile users, are already using mobiles for social networking, from chat services to multimedia sharing. The market research company forecast that the penetration rate would grow to at least 12.5 % in the next five years.

Putting Zyb, and now Vodafone, in a great position to benefit.

But how?

Most mobile social networking services seek to capitalize in one way or another on location information. Gypsii’s SpaceMe service, for instance, will show you where your friends and other members are in real time.

GPS gives mobile social networking a competitive edge

The advantage of companies like Zyb and Gypsii over the computer-based communities, many believe, is the mobile’s innate ability to know where it is, thanks to GPS and other related technologies.

If you do a Gypsii search, it will show you a map of your environs dotted with photos, videos and information from other members.

Bliin, another social network, lets its users update and post their whereabouts every 15 seconds, a trail that can then be followed as dots on a map.

But for other networks, geography and “presence” information is not as critical. MyGamma, a social network run by BuzzCity, based in Singapore, draws most of its 2.5 million users from developing countries in Asia and Africa, according to Lai Kok Fung, its chief executive.

“These are countries with low Internet penetration – they are not PC-centric,” Lai said. “For our members, the mobile phone is the only way to get on the Internet.”

Reaping the benefits of user-centric services

One of the most obvious impacts of the rise of social networking is the traffic boom it creates. It’s a strong factor in the predicted 100-fold rise in traffic over networks in the next few years. For fixed operators, social networking will continue to drive up demand for always-on broadband connections.

For mobile operators, social networking represents an opportunity to generate more revenue from traffic.

Some operators see social networking as a great way to encourage subscribers to sign up to lucrative mobile data packages, offering special data tariffs to enable users to access social networking sites when out and about.

Service providers also have the potential to generate value by partnering with social networking sites, as Vodafone has already done with Zyb.

And understandably, the potential advertising revenues can be huge. But advertising in and of itself is just a piece of the puzzle, for both operators and the social networking companies themselves.

A wide range of revenue opportunities

Says Henning Kosmack, head of Business Development and Innovations at Nokia Siemens Networks, “As social networking companies look to complement advertising revenue by offering premium content, they may benefit from a charging mechanism other than the credit card. The amounts involved will probably be small, and could be added to the phone bill.”

Other possibilities exist too, but only if service providers are fast to adapt. Their wealth of network intelligence could be used to enhance new services with identity management, behavior tracking and user preferences to help consumers find relevant communities.

In December 2007, the online social networking site Bebo launched its Open Application Platform to enable third-party developers to help the social networking site create a better experience for its users. Already more than 40 developers have partnered with Bebo to improve service for its 40 million users.

“If this kind of development gains traction and moves into the mobile world – which it will – service providers face some serious threats,” comments Kosmack.

“Whether or not you think that spending time on Facebook is silly, it is a big thing that will change how people communicate. There will be huge consequences if people in our industry ignore this trend.”

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3G is Smart choice

For millions of Filipinos, broadband has gone mobile.

Smart, a leading Philippine communications service provider (CSP) with 35 million subscribers, is on a mission to make the internet accessible to every Filipino.

“Introducing mobile broadband is an important step in ensuring the entire population has access to the internet,” says Bong Mojica, Head of the Wireless Consumer Division, Smart. “Our drive is to make the internet available on-the-go at an acceptable price.

“We are catering for two audiences – those who have adopted the internet already, and those who are new to the online world. We offer a wide array of handsets at various price levels, which is key to making the service ubiquitous.”

Building on experience

Smart’s mobile broadband launch builds on three years of mobile data experience since the company introduced 3G services in 2006. According to Mojica, this has given 3G subscribers the chance to practice accessing the internet on their mobiles.

“Research shows that Filipinos are not afraid of the internet. Social networking is very popular. Activities like uploading content, watching online videos and blogging are ingrained in the Filipino psyche. Many people go to internet cafés. Web browsing is the entry point for mobile broadband but we are offering a choice of services, from buying music and viewing rich media on the mobile, to enhanced messaging,” he says.

“As we enter the mobile internet space, it is very important to learn from those who have done it already. Nokia Siemens Networks has a presence in many areas where mobile broadband has been in play for a long time. There is huge strategic value in partnering with Nokia Siemens Networks because we can leverage their experience to enhance our execution of mobile broadband.”

Improving brand image

Mobile broadband plays an important role in Smart’s vision for the future. As well as creating new revenue, mobile data services have already impacted Smart’s churn rates. Says Mojica, “Being first to launch in the country creates a lot of stickiness. It also lifts the overall image of our brand. This is vital because Smart is often identified with lower demographic subscribers. We want to retain this but increase our presence among the higher demographic of the population.”

“It is hard to underestimate the financial impact of mobile data services and our recent performance in this area has upped the ante in other value added services. Getting into mobile broadband is an exciting new space for us.”

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Towards effective e-governance

E-governance is a lot more than simply offering online versions of government services.

Most, if not all, governments are looking for ways to serve their citizens via the internet.

And there is a huge opportunity – especially in emerging markets – for governments to do the same thing using mobile technology – drawing at various times upon a suite of services including mobile broadband, SMS, and voice communications.

Overcoming the barriers to success

Stephan Martin of Nokia Siemens Networks has said, “I think the technology is there, and the will is there; but there still are some issues.”

Martin separates these issues into those affecting the user and those affecting the governments themselves.

From the user’s perspective, cost is critical; ease of use and understanding the value are also quite important.

While on the supply-side, cooperation of multiple stakeholders, issues about cost and sustainability all impact the rolling-out of e-government services to citizens.

E-governance already affects the lives of hundreds of millions of people, and over the next few years that number will swell to billions.

How have you been affected by e-governance?

How can you affect it?

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New study: broadband and productivity linked

The relationship between broadband connectivity and economic prosperity is at last being understood

Broadband is getting big media coverage these days. Barack Obama’s economic stimulus package for the United States has earmarked forty billion dollars for improving broadband infrastructure, and countries such as the UK have similar, if less grandiose, plans.

“Super-fast broadband represents one of the most important developments in modern communications for many decades,” said Ed Richards, chief executive of UK regulator Ofcom.

“It will deliver significant benefits to consumers and businesses with the prospect of new digital services delivered over the internet at high speed.”

The underlying assumption of all these stimulus packages is that improved broadband connectivity will help improve economic health. There is an implicit understanding among policymakers and the general public that broadband is good for jobs and good for business.

Increasing productivity in all parts of the world

The linkage between broadband connectivity and economic prosperity is also pointed out by those in emerging economies. Here is Willie Currie, of the Association for Progressive Communications, on the potential for broadband to help South Africa’s economy through the economic downturn:

“All sectors and stakeholders in South Africa will have to work closely together to turn the impending crisis into an opportunity. Not only is it necessary to mitigate the impact on jobs, our economy and society but it is also critical to stimulate recovery and address a number of development deficits, and job creation, at the same time. Broadband offers one of the ways forward to do this.”

And, says a report published for the United Nations, “Broadband networks are an increasingly integral part of the economy. As the technology evolves and bandwidth increases, the scope for broadband to act as an enabler of structural change in the economy expands as it affects an increasing number of sectors and activities.”

But what is the true nature of the connection between broadband connectivity and economic prosperity?

Economic Impact of Broadband: An Empirical Study, published by economic consulting group LECG, commissioned by Nokia Siemens Networks, describes this relationship in great detail.

According to the authors of the report:

The results from our study lend qualified support to the intuitive notion that broadband is a major contributor to productivity. However, we find that the contribution of broadband to productivity is not universal and unambiguous. Rather, the contribution of broadband depends on the diffusion level of other ICT assets in the economy. Economies that have high levels of ICT diffusion (as measured through the diffusion of personal computers) do experience high benefits from broadband. However, in economies such as Spain, Greece and Portugal that have low levels of general ICT diffusion, there does not appear to be any productivity benefit from broadband. These results suggest that in order to be an effective enabler of productivity, broadband requires a well-developed “ICT ecosystem.”

Broadband cannot be considered by itself but rather as part of a bigger ecosystem of connectivity technologies. Some countries with high broadband connectivity, therefore, may not necessarily score as high as other countries with lower connectivity. Those countries who score well use broadband “better” (more productively) than others.

The work has some significant policy implications. On the one hand, it suggests strongly that broadband has potentially significant benefits to productivity and economic growth, and thus the returns from broadband investment can be very high. However, the results do not suggest an unqualified effect of broadband. Rather, higher levels of general ICT diffusion and investment in assets and skills that complement broadband may be required in order to realise the full and substantial benefits of broadband.

Policymakers, argue the authors, should focus more on the users of broadband infrastructure. For broadband to become a more effective tool, countries need to invest in improving overall ICT skills and in lowering the costs to businesses of adopting technology and restructuring business models around technology.

Says Ilkka Lakaniemi, head of global political dialogue and initiatives at Nokia Siemens Networks and one of the sponsors of the Broadband Study, “In the face of the current economic crisis, we call on European policy makers to develop their own models that provide the right overall environment for investment in broadband to be economically effective. The models must take into account the digital divide between Northern and Southern Europe revealed in the Broadband Study.”

The study supports the findings of LECG’s earlier index of overall connectivity, the 2009 Connectivity Scorecard: “Useful connectivity”, according to the authors of the Scorecard, depends not just on the number of people connected to a network or infrastructure, but how well those connected people utilize the network or infrastructure.

Although it is convenient for governments and the telecommunications industry to focus on the supply-side of the broadband industry, ultimately policy makers cannot ignore the capability of business people and regular citizens to utilize this technology for overall economic benefit.

Other findings of the report include:

• If the US had around 5 more broadband lines per 100 individuals (around 15 million more lines), US GDP would increase by more than $50 billion
• With 10 more broadband lines per 100 individuals, productivity benefit would exceed $100 billion

With respect to the stimulus packages now being finalized in the US and elsewhere, the report’s authors conclude, “The goals of expanding the reach of infrastructure are laudable, but they would have significantly greater economic benefit if they were also accompanied by policies that boosted the ability and incentives of people and businesses to creatively use that infrastructure.”

In other words, broadband productivity is about more than simple broadband connectivity.

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